United States of Mexico

Official Language


Destination Stats

Surface Area
Air Quality

Mexico, a vibrant tapestry woven with ancient civilizations and Spanish influences, beckons with diverse landscapes from deserts and mountains to pristine coastlines. Immerse in its ecological wonders, teeming with flora and fauna, and awe-inspiring natural marvels like Copper Canyon, Monarch Butterfly Biosphere, and Cenotes of Yucatán. Explore its rich culinary heritage, embrace the climatic contrasts across dry, comfortable springs and winters to humid, rainy summers, and discover breathtaking sites like Hierve el Agua and Xel-Há, where nature’s beauty takes center stage.

  • Projected population growth: 5,248,041 (Projected by 2030)
  • Breakdown by M/F: Male-50%|Female-50.4% 
  • Ethnic populations: 77% of the population identified as White Irish, while the remaining 23% (12% identified as Polish and UK citizens followed by Indian, Romanian, Lithuanian, Brazilian, Italian, Latvian, and Spanish. 11% includes Irish travelers, other White, Asian, Black, other, and unspecified ethnic groups) identified as non-Irish. 
  • Indigenous populations: White Irish (77%), Irish Travelers (0.6%) (2022 Census)
  • Per person: 4.5 gha per person 
  • Biocapacity: 3.1 gha per person 
  • Global comparison/ranking: Ireland has the 10th largest ecological footprint in the world. 
  • Agriculture – 63.0% 
  • Permanent Pastures: 55.2%
  • Arable Land: 6.3%
  • Organic Farming: 1.5%
  • Forests – 10.7%
  • Non-Agricultural/Artificial Space (Human Development): 1.8%
  • Wetlands & Water Bodies: 14.9%
  • Other (including barren land): 9.6% 
  • Primary Food Products 
    • Top Food-crop Products: Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Potatoes 
    • Top Non-crop Food Commodities: Beef, Milk, Pork, Poultry, and Sheep
    • Top Non-Food Products: Pharmaceuticals, Medical devices, Chemicals, Computer hardware and software, Textiles, and Construction materials
  • Average Annual Surface Temperature: 47°F (8°C) to 53°F (12°C) for high temperatures and 38°F (3°C) to 41°F (5°C) for low temperatures.  
  • Climate:  Republic of Ireland has a temperate oceanic climate located 53.4 km (33.2 mi) north/south of the equator. Ireland does not experience the extremes of temperature that are common in other countries at similar latitudes. The warm North Atlantic Drift has a significant impact on sea temperatures, and the hills and mountains provide shelter from strong winds and from the direct oceanic influence. The warmest areas are found along the southwest coast, and the coldest areas are found inland. The weather in Ireland can be mild, moist, and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes.
  • Seasons: Republic of Ireland’s weather is generally characterized by 4 seasons – spring, summer, autumn, and winter. The seasons in Ireland are less distinct from each other than in other countries, but they still have their own characteristics.
  • Spring:  March – May. 39°F – 50°F | 4°C – 10°C.
  • Summer:  June – August. 59°F – 68°F | 15°C – 20°C.
  • Autumn:  September – November. 48°F – 57°F | 9°C – 14°C.
  • Winter:  December – February. 39.2°F – 45.7°F | 4°C – 7.6°C.
  • Total Water volume:  53.8 billion cubic meters (bcm) | ~12,203.6 trillion gallons.
  • Potable Water Supply per Person: 125 cubic meters/ year (33.02 million gallons).
  • Average Precipitation: 1,113.4 mm | 43.8 inches
  • People in the Republic of Ireland withdraw 82,490.92 gallons (312.04 cubic meters) water per day, per capita including both fresh and salt water. 
  • Approximately 81% of the Republic of Ireland’s population relies on public water supply with 11% dependent on domestic wells. 
  • Total Energy Used: 621 trillion BTU | 0.0621 MTOE | 181.84 billion kWh – kilowatt hours)
  • Global Rank in Energy Consumption: 73 
  • Primary fuel sources used:  Crude Oil(45.9%), Natural Gas(32.8%), Renewables(12.6%)
  • Almost 46% of Republican Ireland’s electricity needs comes from renewable energy.
  • Renewable Energy Sources: Wind(36%), Solar(0.1%), Hydroelectricity(1.6%), Biomass, Ocean Energy, Geothermal Energy.
  • Total Estimated Species: ~31,000 Flora and Fauna.
  • Total Identified Living Species: 28,480.
  • 19,035 species identified fauna.
  • 47,95 species identified flora, fungi and others.
    Total Number of Endangered/Threatened Plant and Animal Species: 480
    • 42.5% (204) are plant species.
    • 57.5% (276) are animal species.
  • 480 threatened and endangered species are primarily affected by habitat loss due to deforestation, agricultural expansion, urbanization, and mining. Hunting and fishing are another reason for rapid decline of species in Ireland.


Welcome from the United States of Mexico!

Tamul Waterfall, Mexican state of San Luis Potosí. (Pexels
photo by Jean Paul Montanaro)

Mexico, officially known as the United States of Mexico (is a vibrant tapestry of culture, history, and natural biodiversity that encases three distinctive climates. 

First inhabited by humans over 40,000 years ago, Mexico is nestled between the Pacific Ocean to the west and southwest, the Gulf of Mexico to the east and the Caribbean Sea to the southeast.  Land borders Mexico to the north by the United States and to the southeast by Guatemala and Belize.

The tenth most populous country in the world, Mexico is a melting pot of cultures and traditions. From the ancient Olmec culture to the present day, it is home to 62 indigenous tribes residing across 18 of the country’s 31 states, each contributing to the colorful mosaic of Mexican identity.  

Mexico is home to over 30 pyramids, a testament to the ingenuity of its ancestors and the majesty of its heritage. But it is not just the Mexico’s history that sets the country apart; it is its natural beauty as well.

One of Mexico’s most distinctive geographic features is its Baja California peninsula. Containing two states, the 1,247 km (775 mi) long strip of land is separated from the mainland by the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez). This unique geography gives rise to Mexico’s great biological diversity, which spans temperate, arid, and tropical regions. The Baja California Peninsula is home to 529 naturally occurring bird species, among which is the Xantus Hummingbird, found exclusively on the peninsula. 

Mexico is one of the world’s more biologically diverse countries with its vast deserts, tropical rainforests, mangrove swamps, and alpine ecosystems. Ranked fifth globally for natural biodiversity, Mexico supports over 50,000 plant species and boasts 47,539 named mountains. 

From the towering peaks to the expansive deserts, Mexico is an extraordinary destination for nature lovers, adventurers, and explorers. Among its natural wonders is the Paricutin volcano, recognized as one of the world’s seven natural wonders, yet still remains undiscovered by many residents and visitors.

Mexican people cherish not only the natural wonders of their land, but they also hold a deep reverence for sustainability. Recognizing the importance of preserving ecological heritage for future generations, Mexico remains steadfast in its commitment to land conservation and responsible tourism practices.

From the ancient civilizations that once flourished on its soil to its breathtaking landscapes and vibrant culture that pulses through its streets, Mexico is a tapestry woven with threads of history, and natural splendor. This is the United States of Mexico…

National Language: Spanish | Español (ehs – pah – nyohl)

  • While Mexico’s Constitution does not explicitly declare an official language, Spanish stands as the de facto linguistic heartbeat, spoken by over 99% of the population.
  • Mexico officially acknowledges 68 indigenous languages.
  • Over 7 million people speak indigenous languages.
El Ángel, Mexico’s Angel of Independence, is a monument in the heart of Mexico City commemorating the country’s independence from the Spanish empire. Mexico is by far the
country’s most populous city. (Photo by Fernando Paleta).

Unique Mexico Facts: Did You Know…?

  • Mexico’s official name is Estados Unidos Mexicanos (United States of Mexico). Before the Spanish conquest, the capital was known as Tenochtitlan. After gaining independence in 1821 from Spain, Mexico City has served as the capital since the colonial period and continues to do so today.
  • Mexico is home to the world’s largest pyramid, larger than the Pyramid of Giza, the Great Pyramid of Cholula in the Mexican state of Puebla, is mostly buried underground!
The Mesoamerican Reef – also called the Great Mayan Reef – is the world’s second largest barrier reef, just after the Great Barrier Reef off the northeastern coast of Australia.  Stretching 700 miles from the northern tip of Mexico’s Yucatan peninsula to the Bay Islands of Honduras, it is home to over 65 species of coral and over 500 species of fish.
  • Mexico has 35 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including ancient ruins, historic towns, and natural areas. Historic Centre of Mexico City and Xochimilco is the perhaps the most popular one.
  • Color TV was invented by Guillermo Gonzalez Camarena. He was born in Guadalajara, a visionary at the age of 23 in 1940, obtaining a patent for the inaugural color image transmission system, a groundbreaking invention later employed in the Voyager 1 Spacecraft
  • Mexican cuisine varies by region, with northern areas favoring rice-filled burritos like those found in Mexica food restaurants worldwide. Contrary to popular belief, authentic Mexican flavors often emphasize a tangy sourness from abundant use of limes, known as ‘lemons’, in Spanish.
  • The Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico marks the location of the Chicxulub Crater created by the massive asteroid impact 65 million years ago that wiped out an estimated 75% of Earth’s living species. The crater itself is buried under the Yucatán Peninsula.
  • Mexico has the world’s smallest volcano, Cuexcomate, which has an elevation of 43 feet (13 meters). It is situated just outside the city of Puebla. It is the only place in the world where a rare rabbit called the volcano rabbit can be found. 
  • Mexico has 10 times as many islands as Hawaii!  1,365 islands are scattered along the coast of Mexico, covering an area of 5,127 km2 (1,980 mi2).
  • Mexican cuisine is recognized by the United Nations (UNESCO) as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
  • Mexico is the birthplace of chocolate!  The ancient Mayans and Aztecs were among the first to cultivate cacao beans, which is the source of today’s international confectionery favorite.
  • The world’s second-largest barrier reef, known as the Mesoamerican Reef, stretches 700 miles from the northern tip of Mexico’s Yucatan Peninsula and also touches the coasts of Belize, Guatemala and Honduras

Mexico’s Home Statistics

(Note: Some statistics are approximate due to varying methods of recording by various established sources, i.e., population, living species and water volume totals. Others are more precise, i.e., surface area, precipitation/rainfall, air quality and temperatures.)

Search for Topics In:



for your own personal library


Total Population: 129,038,757 (2024) | Projected by 2030 – 134,534,107

  • World Rank: 10, 1.6% of the world’s total population.
  • Population Density: 66 people per km2 | 171 people per mi2
  • Most Populous City: Mexico City | 12,294,193 (2024)
  • Least Populous City: Ixtepec| 25,381 (2024)
  • Least Populous Village (non-urban): Ranchería  – 142 (2024)

Surface Area

Total Surface Area: 1,964,375 km2  | 758,449.43 mi2 

  • World Rank: 14
  • 98.96% is Land Surface Area: 1,943,945 km2 | 750561.36 mi2  – 1.3% of the world’s total land area.
  • 1.04% is Water Surface Area: 20,430 km2 |7888.06 mi2  – 0.00565% of the world’s water surface.


Average Annual Temperature (2023): 20.6°C |69.68°F*

  • Average High – 23°C |73.4°F, Average Low – 15°C | 59°F. 
    (Based on average temperatures from central upland and coastal lowlands areas.)
  • Hottest Month (average high): May | 27°C – 33°C | 80.6°F – 91.4°F 
  • Coldest Month (average low): January | 7°C – 14°C | 44.6°F – 57.2°F 
  • Coldest temperature on record: -32°C |-25.6°F in Los Lamentos, Chihuahua on January 11, 1962. 
  • Hottest temperature on record: 52°C|125.6°F in San Luis Rio Colorado, Sonora in 2014.


Total Water Volume: 76.503 billion cubic meters (bcm)|20,208.6 trillion gallons

  • Surface water: 48.2 bcm | 10,949.6 trillion gallons. 
  • Ground water: 5.6 bcm | 1,274.9 trillion gallons.
  • Annual Precipitation (average): 1,113.4 mm | 43.8 inches. (Source with Link)
  • Potable (rechargeable) water supply per resident:  125 cubic meters/ year (33.02 million gallons).


Annual Total Energy Usage (est. for 2024): 7,872.384 trillion BTU (188 MTOE –
megatonnes of oil equivalent or 2,308.007 billion kWh – kilowatt hours)

  • Global ranking in energy consumption: 21 (World Data Info) 
  • Percentage of Total Global Energy Consumption: 0.9%.
  • 7,156,919.974 BTU | 2,097 kWh per capita – ranks 63 worldwide – 2023 (Enerdata)
  • Energy Sources (based on 2023 data):  Oil 44.3% | Coal – 5.4% | Natural Gas – 39% | Renewables – 7.1%.  (International Energy Agency – IEA)
  • Renewable Energy Sources: Wind – 4.2% | Solar – 1.3% | Hydro – 1.6%
  • Electricity Sources: Fossil Fuels – 82.1%| Renewables – 17.9% (LowCarbonPower)

Air Quality

Air Quality Index – AQI: 68.65 Moderate


View Mexico’s Current Air Quality

Realtime Air Quality Index – AQI
(Source: IQAir)

Click Here!


24,114 species

  • Flowering Plants: 22,126
  • Ferns and Lycophytes: 1,039
  • Liverworts/Mosses: ~800
  • Gymnosperms (Conifers, Cycads): 149

Total Number of Critically Endangered/Endangered/Threatened Plant and Animal Species: 2,324 (IUCN Red List in 2023)

  • Plant species: 475 endangered species, and 896 threatened species.
  • Animal species: 371 are vulnerable, 353 as endangered, and 229 as critically endangered.
  • Threatened and endangered species are primarily affected by Habitat Loss and Degradation (urbanization, agriculture, and mining), Climate change, Illegal Wildlife Trade, Hunting, Poaching and Lack of Enforcement of Conservation Laws.


Total Number of Identified Living Species: 155,199

  • Identified Fauna: 131,085
    • Invertebrates – 125,585
    • 48,000 insects
  • Vertebrates – 5, 500
    • 2,695 fishes
    • 1,107 birds
    • 535 mammals
    • 804 reptiles


Sources and Research

Notable Mexico’s Universities and Colleges for Environmental Studies

Notable Mexico’s Environmental Organization


  • Database Review: Ecology Prime Data Resources
  • Strategic Partner: Foundation for Ecology
  • Science Review and Approval: Dr. Jack C. Hall
  • Critical Review and R&D Guidance: Eric McLamb